The oldest wineries in the world, these vivid cultural heritage sites tell us how wine has been with us all the way through the past few thousand years, and will always be with us in the future.
In 2013, the researchers discovered a Canaan palace in the middle of the Bronze Age (1900-1600 BC) in the current Israeli area. The researchers found in the palace excavation project that a closed building was found on the west side of the palace’s central courtyard. 40 large storage containers were found in the room.
Researchers used mass spectrometry to analyze organic residues and found that all relatively uniform storage containers displayed chemical compounds containing wine. Researchers believe that the testing of these additives showed that at the time humans needed to produce beverages with good freshness and good taste, they needed a mature understanding of the plant and a complicated production technology. The researchers said that the results of these studies may help to better understand the ancient grape cultivation methods and the magnificent economy of Canaan.
Iron Age Beer
A 62,000-year-old Celtic settlement in the Eberdingen-Hochdorf region of Germany excavated six artificial canals used to make high-quality malts. Thousands of coke grains have been found in these artificial canals over the past decade. The oldest known beer-related residues are currently known to be found in the Middle East, about 5,500 years ago, but direct evidence of archaeology in the history of beer manufacturing is rare.
Archaeologists boldly speculated that barley was soaked in artificial channels until it germinated. The barley malt was then transferred to a drying place at the end of an artificial canal and dried slowly with a slight fire. In the process of drying, the malt produces a smoky taste and a grayish black appearance. At the same time, the accumulation of lactic acid makes these malted malts appear sour. But beer brewers of that era used flavored plants, carrots, or henbane to season. The discovery of some angel seeds in this ancient Celtic site is proof.
Europe’s oldest wine
Archeologists discovered the oldest wine in Europe in Dikili Tash, Greece. Archaeological samples date back to 4200 BC. People have made new discoveries about the lifestyle of people in the Neolithic Age. At the site of the excavation of the archeological site, archaeologists found pressed carbonized grape berries in jars. This shows that people already know how to extract juice from grapes.
In 1990, a research team discovered the chemical evidence of the earliest known liquor in the world at a house in Dingtie, in the Zagros Mountain in western Iran. The history of this liquor can be traced back to around 3500 BC. Two years later, while still searching for the house, the research team found a residue in another container that was considered to be the earliest barley wine in history.
The Sumerian people’s agriculture is more developed and the crops are dominated by barley. Oats, wheat, garlic and onions are also cultivated. The Sumerians had mastered the winemaking method earlier. Up to 30 kinds of beer were made from barley and oats as raw materials. Sumer carved the slate of wine on a slab of stone and found it after several dozens of centuries. The handwriting on the tablet is still clearly visible.
The oldest wine in Egypt
An international team of archaeologists discovered the world’s oldest winemaking facility in a cave in southern Armenia, which dates back to 6100 years ago. Archaeologists found a large cylinder for squeezing grapes, several fermentors, a wine glass, and a large bowl for drinking at this winery site.
The remains of the winery found in the tombs of King I of King I of Ancient Egypt were originally the oldest breweries, with a history of about 5100 years. Since the brewing facilities were found around the cemetery, researchers believe that the wines produced may be used for certain ceremonies. McGovern believes that wine is the main drink at the funeral and later buried as a sacrifice in the grave.